​Principle 5

Build on the extensive community-engaged scholarship and research over the last four decades that shows what works, acknowledges its complexity and evaluates it appropriately.


Understanding and planning for coalition sustainability is another critical component. For long term coalition success, Wolff (2010) describes a four-pronged approach to sustainability that fosters:
  1. Building community ownership;
  2. Institutionalizing changes;
  3. Adopting policy changes; and
  4. Finding resources.
Other Resources:

Books and Articles:
  • Berkowitz, B., Wolff, T. (1998). Rethinking social action and community empowerment: A dialogue. In M. Brinton Lykes, et al. (Eds.), Unmasking social inequalities: Victims, voice and resistance, 296–317. Philadelphia, PA: Temple University Press.
  • Berkowitz, B., Wolff, T. (2000). The spirit of the coalition. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.
  • Butterfoss, F.D., Kegler, M. The Community Coalition Action Theory.
  • Butterfoss, F.D. (2007). Coalitions and Partnerships for Community Health. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
  • Butterfoss, F.D. (2013). Ignite: Getting Your Community Coalition Fired Up for Change. Bloomington, IN: Author House.
  • Butterfoss, F.D, Kegler M.C., Francisco, V.T. (2009). Mobilizing organizations for health enhancement: Theories of Organizational and Systems Change. In K. Glanz, B. K. Rimer, K. Viswanath (Eds). Health Education and Health Behavior: Theory, Research and Practice, 4th Edition. San Francisco: JosseyBass.
  • Cancela, V., Alpert, J., Wolff, T., Dachs, S. (2004). Psychological approaches to community health: Community health psychology. In R. H. Rozensky, et al. (Eds.), Psychology builds a healthy world, 155–185. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.
  • DeChiara, M., Wolff, T., Unruh, E. (2001). Health access networks: Advocating social justice from the ground up. AHEC Bulletin, 28(2), 6–7.
  • Lee, P., Fuccillo, R., Wolff, T. (2000). Key components of a statewide healthy community effort. Public Health Reports, 115 (2/3), 134–138.
  • Roussos, S.T., Fawcett, S.B. (2000). A Review of Collaborative Partnerships as a Strategy for Improving Community Health. Annual Review of Public Health, 21, 369-402.
  • Weiss, E., Anderson, R., Lasker, R. (2002). Making the most of collaboration: Exploring the relationship between partnership synergy and partnership functioning. Health Education & Behavior, 29, 683-698.
  • Wolff, T. (1999). An assets-based approach to building communities. The National AHEC Bulletin, 13(1) (Winter), 6-12.
  • Wolff, T. (Ed., section). (2001). Community coalition building: Contemporary review. 92(2), 95–113.
  • Wolff, T. (2001). The future of community coalition building. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29(2), 263–268.
  • Wolff, T. (1995). Healthy Communities Massachusetts: One vision of civic democracy. Municipal Advocate, 14(2) (Spring), 22–24. Reprinted: Michigan Municipal Review, March 1996; Western City, League of California Cities, August 1996.
  • Wolff, T. (2001). A practitioner’s guide to successful coalitions. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29(2), 173–191.
  • Wolff, T. (2001). Community coalition building—contemporary practice and research: An introduction. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29(2), 165–191. 
  • Wolff, T. (2010) The power of collaborative solutions. San Francisco. CA: Jossey-Bass/John Wiley.
  • Wolff, T. (2010) Tools for Sustainability, Global Journal of Community Psychology Practice, 1(1), 40–57.
  • Wolff, T., Kaye, G. (Eds.). (1995). From the ground up: A workbook on coalition building and community development. Amherst, MA: AHEC/Community Partners.


It is important that there is a good evaluation and learning system based in what we know from scholarship and research in place throughout the process.

Books and Articles:
  • Alfers, D, Butterfoss FD. Evaluation on a Shoestring: Key to Success for Virginia Prenatal Incentive Program. Health Promotion Practice, 1(3): 259-67, 2000.
  • Berkowitz, B. (2001). Studying the outcomes of community-based coalitions. American Journal of Community Psychology, 29(2), 213-227.
  • Butterfoss, FD. Community Health Evaluation Technical Action Guide. Washington, DC: National Business Coalitions on Health and Community Coalitions Health Institute, 2012.
  • Butterfoss, FD. Evaluating Partnerships to Prevent and Manage Disease. Preventing Chronic Disease, 6(2), 2009.
  • Butterfoss FD and Francisco V. Culturally Competent Evaluation. Health Promotion Practice, 3(2):120-22, 2002.
  • Butterfoss FD and Francisco VT. Evaluating community partnerships and coalitions with practitioners in mind. Health Promotion Practice, 5(2):108-14, 2004.
  • Butterfoss FD, Francisco V, Capwell E.  Choosing effective evaluation methods. Health Promotion Practice, 1(4): 307-13, 2000.
  • Butterfoss FD, Francisco, V. Capwell E. Key issues in evaluation: Quantitative methods and research design. Health Promotion Practice, 2(1):20-23, 2001.
  • Butterfoss FD, Francisco V, Capwell E. Stakeholder participation in evaluation. Health Promotion Practice, 2(2):114-19, 2001.
  • Butterfoss, FD. Process Evaluation for Community Participation. Annual Review of Public Health, volume 27, 323-40, 2006.
  • Capwell, E, Butterfoss, FD, Francisco, V. Why Evaluate? Health Promotion Practice, 1(1), 15-20, 2000.
  • Fawcett, S., Lewis, R., Paine-Andrews, A., Francisco, V., Richer, K., Williams, E. & Copple, B. (1997). Evaluating community coalitions for prevention of substance abuse: The case of Project Freedom. Health Education and Behavior, 24(6), 812-828.
  • Foster-Fishman, P., et al., “Building Collaborative Capacity in Community Coalitions: A Review and Integrative Framework,” American Journal of Community Psychology 29, no. 2 (2001): 241–61.
  • Granner, M., & Sharpe, P. ( 2004). Evaluating community coalition characteristics and functioning: A summary of measurement tools. Health Education & Behavior , 19, 514-532.
  • Kegler, MC, Swan, DW. 2011. An Initial Attempt at Operationalizing and Testing the Community Coalition Action Theory. Health Education and Behavior.
  • Schultz, J.A. et al., “Participatory Monitoring and Evaluation Within a Statewide Support System to Prevent Adolescent Substance Abuse,” Journal of Prevention & Intervention in the Community 41, no. 3 (2013): 188–200.
  • Shakeh J. Kaftarian and William B. Hansen, “Improving methodologies for the evaluation of community-based substance abuse prevention programs,” Journal of Community Psychology, Special Issue (1994): 3–6.
  • Shortell, S.M., Zukoski, A.P., Alexander, J.A., Bazzoli, G.J., Conrad, J.A., Husnain-Wynia, R., Sofaer, S., Chan, B.Y., Casey, E., & Margolin, F.S. (2002). Evaluating partnerships for community health improvement: Tracking the footprints. Journal of Health Politics, Policy and Law, 27(1), p. 49-92.
  • Stergios Tsai Roussos and Stephen B. Fawcett, “A Review of Collaborative Partnerships as a Strategy for Improving Community Health,” Annual Review of Public Health 21 (2000): 369–402.
  • Wolff, T. (2003). A practical approach to evaluating coalitionsIn T. Backer (Ed.), Evaluating community collaborations (pp. 57–112). New York: Springer Publishing. Wolff, T. (2005).